Heat the olive oil in a large Dutch oven set over medium heat. Add the onion, garlic and jalapeño. Cook, stirring occasionally, until tender but not browned. Meanwhile, put the cumin, chili powder, peppercorns, turmeric, and caraway in a mortar or spice grinder and process until ground.
Add 1 teaspoon of the spice mixture to the vegetables and stir to combine. Add the tomatoes and grits and stir to combine. Simmer until the tomato juices have reduced by half.
Add 4 cups water and bring to a simmer. Simmer uncovered for 20 minutes, stirring every 4 to 5 minutes.
Add the turkey, white beans, and salt. Stir again and simmer uncovered for another 10 minutes.
Serve with a sprinkle of fresh cilantro.